Signposts and Indicators our monthly summary of important political, economic, social and technological changes that affect organizations will benefit your long-term decision-making is available.
In this issue: Politics in the Middle East takes another turn; Mortgage rates in the US begin to bite; the social consequences of pension problems; and a new tool in fighting drug-resistant germs.

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David Chaudron, PhD
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Organized Change
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Strategic Planning

Understanding Aesthetic Innovation in the Context of Technological Evolution

Eisenman, M. (July, 2013). Academy of Management Review, 38, 332-351.

The focus of this article is to propose a theoretical model of aesthetic innovation which explains the importance of strategic use of design in product development in relation to technological advances. Eisenman (2013) suggests that design is the most important tool not only for communicating the uses of a new product but also for influencing buyers' perception and emotions towards that product. The researcher points out that the firm's success of using aesthetic innovation depends on the market dynamics, new model introduction, user characteristics, and cultural dynamics.

To read the full summary, click here.

Additional articles on strategic planning by Dr. Chaudron are available here.


Balanced Scorecard

The Moderating effects of the Incentive System and Performance Measure on Managers' and their Supervisors' Expectations about the Manager's Effort

Cianci, A. M., Kaplan, S. E., & Samuels, J. A. (2013). Behavioral Research in Accounting, 25 (1), 115-134.

The current research explores differences between manager's effort expectations and the effort expectations formed by the manager's supervisor. Cianci et al. (2013) proposed that when planning to accomplish a particular task, managers tend to increase the number of hours they plan to work, depending on either the incentives or the type of performance evaluation. Unlike the manager, the manager's supervisors tend to accommodate a fewer number of total hours to accomplish a task.

To read the full summary, click here.

Additional articles by Dr. Chaudron on the Balanced Scorecard are available here.


360 Feedback

Impact of Power Distance on Multi-Source Feedback Evaluations: A Cross-Cultural Perspective

Mittal, R., & Saran, A. (2010). Journal of International Business and Economics, 10, 117-122.

The purpose of this article is to provide a theoretical examination of the extent to which cultural values influence the usefulness of multi-source feedback (MSF). Mittal and Saran (2010) propose that the application of the MSF in High Power Distance (HPD) cultures differs from those applications in Low Power Distance (LPD) cultures. The researchers suggest that while the usability of the MSL in LPD is useful, the use of MSL in HPD culture may have little or no importance.

To read the full summary, click here.

Additional articles on 360 feedback by Dr. Chaudron are available here.


Training

Training and Organizational Effectiveness: Moderating Role of Knowledge Management Process

Rahman, A. A., Ng, S.I., Sambasivan, M., & Wong, F. (2013). European Journal of Training and Development, 37, 472-488.

The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether the costs invested in training and knowledge transfer had impact on organizational effectiveness. Rahman et al. (2013) demonstrated that organizational effectiveness significantly improved as a result of training offered to employees to acquire individual, managerial and process skills. The researchers also found that knowledge application and knowledge protection related to individual/managerial skills training which in turn improved organizational effectiveness.

To read the full summary, click here.

Additional articles on training by Dr. Chaudron are available here.


Employee Surveys

The Risks and Rewards of Speaking up: Managerial Responses to Employee Voice

Burris, E. (2012). Academy of Management Journal, 55, 851-875.

This article discusses manager's perception of employees who speak up using two distinct types of voice - a challenging or supportive. Burris (2012) found that managers perceive employees with a more challenging ways of speaking as less effective performers, less loyal, and more threatening than those employees speaking in a supportive way. The researcher strongly recommends that supervisors should receive training on how to react to a challenging voice of their employees and learn to perceive it as an opportunity and not as a threat.

To read the longer summary, click here.

For additional articles on employee surveys by Dr. Chaudron, click here.


Teams/Facilitation

Reciprocal Expertise Affirmation and Shared Expertise Perceptions in Work Teams: Their Implications for Coordinated Action and Team Performance

Grutterink, H., Vegt, Van G. S., Molleman, E. (2013). Applied Psychology: An International Review, 62, 359-381.

The focus of this article is to find relationship between mutual recognition by team members and performance. Specifically, Grutterink and Molleman (2013) hypothesized that highly performing teams consist of team members who not only share high levels of expertise but also respect, value and affirm each other's expertise. The researchers documented that reciprocal expertise affirmation is one of the most important aspects for team members when deciding how much effort they are willing to contribute to the team's success.

To read a longer summary, click here.

Additional articles on teams by Dr. Chaudron are here.


Six Sigma

The Role of Quality Mangers in Contemporary Organizations

Elg, M., Gremyr, I., Hellström, A. & Witell, L. (2011). Total Quality Management, 22, 795-806.

The current study with 212 quality managers in Swedish organizations illustrates how the management of quality is organized and what it does. Elg et al. (2011) question the current understanding and practices of quality management in organizations pointing out that although several scholars within the quality management field have developed multiple versions of quality management, the quality managers are still unable to resolve day-to-day quality issues.

To read a longer summary, click here.

Additional articles on TQM/Six Sigma by Dr. Chaudron are available here.