elance The Journal of Organized Change June 2018

I hope all of you are enjoying the Summer, and looking forward to cooler weather.

We have two additional articles on the website by Dr. Chaudron: How to improve a company culture using employee surveys, and Using an authority matrix to clarify roles and empower employees.

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Strategic Planning

Sosiawani, I., Ramli, A., Mustafa, M., & Yusoff, R. Z. (2015). Strategic planning and firm performance: A proposed framework.

International Academic Research Journal of Business and Technology, 1(2), 201-207.

Additional articles on strategic planning by Dr. Chaudron are available here.

This article examines whether strategic planning will assist business firms to uplift its performance. The authors note that in the strategic management field, the performance of the organizations has been studied repeatedly and the importance of assessing the performance has been widely recognized. Additionally, there are many factors that can influence the performance of the organization. Evidence from the literature suggested that strategic planning is one of the factors that can improve the performance of the organization.

In an organization, the effective role of strategic planning in order to improve organizational performance is well documented in the strategic management literature and it is believed that, through proper strategic planning, organizations will achieve better performance. Strategic planning has been more important for the organization to deal with the changing of so many aspects of life which make strategic planning more crucial for a longer business life and competitiveness. The implementation of strategic planning is also another dimension claimed to be one of the most important partsin the strategic planning process.

The authors conclude that based on the literature review and above discussion on strategic planning and organizational performance, it can be concluded that, strategic planning has important contributions in order to achieve a better organizations performance. Therefore, the relationship between each dimension of strategic planning will be tested toward the performance of the organization. It is hoped that the findings of this study will be able to help the organization to understand how the strategic planning can help to make a betterdecision in the future.


Balanced Scorecard

Nielsen, S., & Nielsen, E. H. (2015). The balanced scorecard and the strategic learning process: a system dynamics modeling approach.

Advances in Decision Sciences, 2015. 1-21.

Additional articles by Dr. Chaudron on the Balanced Scorecard are available here.

The main purpose of this paper is to improve on the conceptual as well as the methodological aspects of BSC as a quantitative model by combining elements from traditional balanced scorecard (BSC) thinking with the Systems Thinking. The aims to address not only the conceptual domain related to BSC, that is, learning and system dynamics causality and feedback but also the methodological domain concept of precision solved by differential equations.

The system dynamics method utilizes modeling elements such as feedback, delays, and nonlinearities within the domain of delay-differential equations mathematics. The authors found out that BSC has gone through different time stages or generations: from a simple 1st G. tool to what we now may call a 4th G. tool. BSC model may now be derived from what Kaplan and Norton call an "analytics framework for BSC." They argue that the extension of the estimation challenges for the BSC frameworks is not trivial problems. So one should not expect that these problems will be less important or vanish when it comes to a whole set of metrics in a coherent framework such as the Balanced Scorecard, grouped in different clusters of metrics.

"Balance" is achieved by diverse measurement in the domains of financial performance, operational performance, performance for the customer, and learning and innovation. Kaplan and Norton argue that a balanced scorecard is not merely a collection of financial and nonfinancial measures in various categories (hard and soft values and short and long run) but that it is an integrated set of measures developed from a "theory of the business" that explicitly links the scorecard metrics in a causal chain of performance drivers and outcomes


360 Feedback

Agrawal, A., Gupta, M. S. Behavioural Impact of 360 Degree Feedback on the Employees in an Organisation.

Aayushi International Interdisciplinary Research Journal, 5(3), 341-345.

Additional articles by Dr. Chaudron on the Balanced Scorecard are available here.

This article discusses the behavioral change amongst the employees which is induced by the use of 360-degree feedback method in an organization. The authors describe three sixty degrees feedback, as multi-rater, multi-source feedback has emerged as an important developmental and performance appraisal tool due to its ability to provide an all-around view of employees performance from various stakeholders such as superiors, peers, subordinates, suppliers, customers, and vendors which is otherwise unavailable under any other method of performance appraisal.

The authors write that for people to evolve in an organization they need continuous information about their behavior as to what is working well and what needs to change. This information is provided to them through feedback. This is where 360-degree feedback is playing a growing role in organizations through its ability to provide structured, in-depth information about current performance and what will be required of an individual in the future to enable detailed and relevant development plans to be formulated.

They conclude that 360-degree feedback clearly is a powerful tool in bringing a behavioral change among the employees. The perceived benefits of the programme will be realized only when used in the organizational climate with an expectation of success. It can initially be used as a means of self-development, enabling the leaders to identify their developmental areas. This process needs to be integrated with the other HR practices to reap its full advantage. Also, assistance needs to be provided to the recipient in understanding and interpreting the feedback.


Training

Elnaga, A., & Imran, A. (2013). The effect of training on employee performance.

European Journal of Business and Management, 5(4), 137-147.

Additional articles by Dr. Chaudron on the Balance Scorecard are available here.

This article aims to is to close this gap by deeply investigating this phenomenon through the relevant literature, shedding more light into the relationship of training effectiveness, and superior employee performance and providing suggestions to the firms as for how they can make the best use of training programs to make their employees perform well on the job. Improved capabilities, knowledge, and skills of the talented workforce proved to be a major source of competitive advantage in a global market and to develop the desired knowledge, skills and abilities of the employees, to perform well on the job, require effective training programs that may also affect employee motivation and commitment. Training refers to a planned intervention aimed at enhancing the elements of individual job performance.

According to the authors, employees are the most valuable asset of every company as they can make or break a company's reputation and can adversely affect profitability. Therefore, training is a necessity in the workplace. Without it, employees don't have a firm grasp of their responsibilities or duties. Employeetraining refers to programs that provide workers with information, new skills, or professional development opportunities. Effective training and development programs aimed at improving the employees' performance. Training refers to bridging the gap between the current performance and the standard desired performance.

The authors conclude that the main objective of every training session is to add value to the performance of the employees; hence all type of businesses design training and development programs of their employees as a continuous activity. Purpose of training is what employees would attain after experiencing the training program.


Employee Surveys

Borg, I., Braun, M., & Baumgärtner, M. K. (2008). Attitudes of demographic item non-respondents in employee surveys.

International Journal of Manpower, 29(2), 146-160.

For additional articles on employee surveys by Dr. Chaudron, click here.

In this article, the authors sought to investigate whether the participants in an employee survey who do not answer one or more demographic items differ systematically from those who fill out all demographic items. The authors note that Employee surveys are the most widely used tools of Human Resources research and organizational development today. Their effectiveness depends, however, on their ability to yield unbiased focused feedback on the employees' attitudes and opinions. What is needed is reliable information on how the employees of different organizational units and, in particular, individual workgroups view the conditions of their working environment, not just company-wide statistics on the average employee.

The effect of job satisfaction on demographic non-response is moderated by the person's affective commitment: Job satisfaction has the greatest impact on demographic non-response if the commitment is not extreme. Commitment does not, although the sign of its weight is in the predicted direction. Job satisfaction, on the other hand, leads to an increase in the likelihood of demographic non-response in this model, which is not as predicted.

The authors' findings indicate that non-response to demographic items in an employee survey is more likely to occur for employees with low commitment, low job satisfaction, and, most importantly, with a negative attitude towards the company's leadership. They found a commitment to have a main effect on the likelihood to answer the demographic items.


Teams/Facilitation

Hedman, E. (2015). Facilitating leadership team communication.

Jyväskylä studies in humanities, (266).

Additional articles on teams by Dr. Chaudron are here.

In this study, the researcher explores the phenomena of leadership team communication by inquiring into the experiences of leadership team members and immersing me in the naturally occurring communication processes that occur during leadership team meetings. The aim of the study is to understand and describe how to facilitate competent communication in leadership teamwork. It seeks to produce further insights into understanding leadership team communication, communication competence, and team facilitation as applied communication research.

Leadership teams are a good example of bonafidegroups because leadership team members often possess multiple memberships within their organizations. Communication is a practical discipline, and communication theories often have a practical value: they help people make sense of their communication behavior in relation to others and develop ways to improve their communication practice. According to the author, Communication competence has been a core interest of communication scholars. However, the prevailing conceptualizations of communication competence have largely focused on a socio-psychological approach to individuals' skills, knowledge, and motivations.

The author concludes that competent communication and reflexivity can be developed through facilitation grounded in the emerging discourses and communication patterns of the social system. This insight should be taken into consideration in addition to more traditional communication-development programs which too often are based on fixed, individual-based definitions of communication competence.


Six Sigma

Tjahjono, B., Ball, P., Vitanov, V. I., Scorzafave, C., Nogueira, J., Calleja, J., ... & Srivastava, S. (2010). Six Sigma: a literature review.

International Journal of Lean Six Sigma, 1(3), 216-233.

Additional articles by Dr. Chaudron on Six Sigma are here.

This article captures the current state of Six Sigma and documents the current practices of Six Sigma through a systematic literature review. The methodology includes targeting relevant publications databases, searching these using a wide range of keywords and phrases associated with Six Sigma, and then reviewing each paper identified. The outcome of these reviews was the extraction of a set of key findings, compiled and grouped by topics. As per the literature review, the authors define Six Sigma as a set of statistical tools, an operational philosophy of management, business culture and an analysis methodology that uses the scientific methods, although the streams are not mutually exclusive but instead, overlapping.

Depending on the purpose, there are two principal methodologies in which Six Sigma can be implemented: DMAIC and DFSS. DMAIC is generally used for process improvement and DFSS for new development of product and services. Literature presents many variations of both. Through the literature review, the authors find out that there is a wealth variety of tools and techniques which are often classified within the DMAIC approach but with little detail on specific examples of their applications. Basic tools are often sufficient for the initial improvements of most processes but the simulation techniques open up anew and promising avenue to enhance the merits already achieved by Six Sigma.

Six Sigma has many benefits and, unsurprisingly, the most frequently cited are the reduction and prevention of defects which affect the quality of both products and processes. Six Sigma is very much in use within the manufacturing sector but is growing in the service sector.