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David Chaudron, PhD
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Organized Change
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Strategic Planning

Ph.D R. Fairholm, Matthew. (2009). Leadership and Organizational Strategy.
The Innovation Journal: The Public Sector Innovation Journal, Volume 14(1), article 3. http://www.innovation.cc/scholarly-style/fairholm3.pdf

This paper starts by delimiting the difference between strategic planning and strategic thinking, and presents, as a result, an outline of the foundations of the latter. While strategic planning focuses on the more traditional side of management (i. e. planning, controlling chaos and standardising activities within the organization), strategic thinking is directed towards leadership and chaos acceptance. In other words, strategic planning is about a set of delimitations and attempts of controlling the obstacles, opportunities and results. Strategic thinking, on the other hand, is about recognizing the existence of uncontrollable factors that are part of the broader context and formulating strategies that take them into account, leaving space for creativity and innovation. From this, the paper extracts four main types of approaches (how, what-how, what-why-how, and why-what-how) and proceeds to list a series of aptitudes and attitudes a leader must have in order to engage in strategic thinking.

To read the longer summary, click here.

Additional articles on strategic planning by Dr. Chaudron are available here.

Balanced Scorecard

Ayesha Farooq, Zareen Hussain. (2011). Balanced scorecard perspective on change and performance: a study of selected Indian companies.
Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 24. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877042811015710

Balance scorecard is a useful tool for organizations to restructure vision and strategy along with business activities, it also measures actual organizational performance taking present goals into account. This tool is also used for assessing financial processes, customer relations, internal business processes, as well as learning and growth characters of an organization. The purpose of this paper is to recognise the role of balanced scorecard and change management on organizational performance. The methodology used for this analysis includes the development of a questionnaire and the recollection of responses from organizations segregated on the basis of public and private sector, and manufacturing and service industry. The study includes the use of statistical tools such as t-test and Correlation. The results obtained from this process show that Indian organizations have incorporated the dimensions of BSC as a tool to measure performance and use it to generate change and improve performance.

To read the longer summary, click here.

Additional articles by Dr. Chaudron on the Balanced Scorecard are available here.

360 Feedback

Monalisa Mohapatra. (2015), 360 Degree Feedback: A Review of Literature.

360 feedback is an evaluation process in which feedback is taken from superior, peers, subordinates, and costumers, and that is later shared with the worker for assessment and development. This paper presents the study of past literatures (30 articles) of job satisfaction between the years 1995 and 2013 with the purpose of revealing the contribution of 360 feedback to the organizations and its grow. From that review, this paper finds that 360 degree feedback is valued by the employers as it helps them grow and develop in their career as well as have a higher level of organizational performance.

To read the longer summary, click here.

Additional articles on 360 feedback by Dr. Chaudron are available here.


Chris Obisi. (2011). Employee Training and Development in Nigerian Organisations: Some observations and agenda for research.
Australian Journal of Business and Management Research. Vol. 1, No. 9

The results of this paper on training show that there is a poor attitude towards training administration: trainees are neither prepared nor equipped before, during and after training programs. The author suggests that priority should be given to empirical analysis of the significance of identifying specific and appropriate needs before venturing into training as well as understanding why training fails. Adding value and reworking on training programs should be the ultimate goals of any training programs according to Obisi, as lack of training will make it very difficult to acquire the necessary skills required by organizations to reach its objectives through people.

To read the longer summary, click here.

Additional articles on training by Dr. Chaudron are available here.

Employee Surveys

Stuart M. Klein, Allen I. Kraunt, and Alan Wolfson. (1971). Employee Reactions to Attutide Survey Feedback: A Study of the Impact of Structure and Process.
Administrative Science Quarterly. Vol. 16, No. 4. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2391769

This paper focuses on examining the impact that attitude survey feedback has on recipient's attitudes towards the feedback process and their perceptions of survey application. This study focuses on manufacturing employees and manufacturing managers and considers two variables, namely structure and process. The study found that the first group, management, perceived a close relation between application and satisfaction. This is attributed to the decision-making orientation of that group. The two process variables found were communication and involvement, the first one predicted better to satisfaction with survey feedback, and the second one predicted better to perceived utilization of the survey's results.

To read a longer summary, click here.

For additional articles on employee surveys by Dr. Chaudron, click here.


Salomon Markos. (2010). Employee Engagement: The Key to Improving Performance.
International Journal of Business and Management. Vol. 5, No. 12.

Employee engagement is an important element in foreseeing positive organizational performance. It shows the synergetic relationship between employee and employer compared to the concepts of job satisfaction, employee commitment and organizational citizenship behaviour upon which it is founded. The importance of engagement relies in the emotional attachment employers develop towards their organization and the level of involvement they acquire as a consequence. An engaged employer will work for the success of the employer "going extra mile beyond the employment contractual agreement." This paper states the importance of employee engagement, defines the concept and its evolution, and lists some of the drivers of employee engagement as well as some strategies for employee engagement.

To read a longer summary, click here.

Additional articles on teams by Dr. Chaudron are here.

Six Sigma

Qun Zhang. (2012). Lean Six Sigma: A Literature Review. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business. Vol. 3, No. 10.

The purpose of this paper is to give an account of 116 papers in English language related to Six Sigma from different perspectives: Implementation, Focus Area, Focus Industry, Focus Country, Year Wise Publications and Year Wise Focus Area and Focus Industry. From that analysis, the paper concludes that Lean Six Sigma is mostly implemented in the Health Industry. First, the paper broadly defines both Six Sigma and Lean manufacturing. Then, it briefly describes the methodology adopted for this study and the databases consulted (EBSCO host, Emerald, Google scholar, Science direct), and proceeds to describe the results with percentages and charts:
-Process improvement is the main focus area for publications on Lean Six Sigma.
-The United States is the country that writes the most about Lean Six Sigma.
-2011 has seen an increase in publications about Lean Six Sigma.
-Among the clearly defined industries, the Health Industry is the one that most frequently implements Lean Six Sigma.
Finally, the study presents as a conclusion that "The research on lean six sigma is on initial state." And that "it is quite beneficial for different industries with little modifications as per industry requirement".

To read a longer summary, click here.

Additional articles on TQM/Six Sigma by Dr. Chaudron are available here.