Dear David,


We hope you have the happiest holidays and a wonderful New Year.


A case study of how Consensus Builder (tm) can be used to develop a strategic and change management plan had a bad link last month. The proper link is here.

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David Chaudron, PhD
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Organized Change
dgc@organizedchange.com
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Strategic Planning

Edward William Wright, Yue Cai Hillon, Mariano Garrido-Lopez, Drake Fowler, (2018) "A new scorecard for strategic planning.

Journal of Business Strategy

Additional articles on strategic planning by Dr. Chaudron are available here.

Organizations have recognized the need for strategic planning, as good strategic plans substantially increase the likelihood of business success. Strategic planners have to overcome several obstacles to be effective however, participants normally rely on upon brainstorming instead of research to gather the latest, factual data. There is also difficulties faced by planners because of lack of tactics available to them to conduct an analysis. This results in participants creating long list of factors using ambiguous phrases and with no prioritization.

Researchers typically follow a standard strategic planning process: creating the vision, mission and core values statements; analyzing the external situation (trends, direct competitors and the market); evaluating the firm's resources (value chain); preparing an analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT); selecting strategy; and determining goals and programs for realizing the plan.

This study makes several contributions to the literature of strategic planning. The authors present scorecard tools to assist the strategic planner with the situational analysis and provide a variation of Barney's resource test for competitive advantage for the internal analysis. Additionally, the paper outlines a process for creating a research-based, SWOT analysis and links synergistic combinations of SWOT elements to the choice of strategy, These aids include an environmental factors scorecard, a market favorability scorecard, a competitive benchmarking scorecard, a resource evaluation scorecard and a strategy fit matrix. Planners can use these devices to produce a research-based, situational analysis and as a guide to select the most appropriate strategy.


Balanced Scorecard

Bhagwat, R., & Sharma, M. K. (2007). Performance measurement of supply chain management: A balanced scorecard approach.

Computers & Industrial Engineering, 53(1), 43-62ournal of Business Ethics, 133(2), 193-221

Additional articles by Dr. Chaudron on the Balanced Scorecard are available here.

Identifying the required performance measures for any business activity, such as supply chain management (SCM) is essential for the business and should be an integral part of any business strategy. In this paper the authors develop a balanced scorecard for supply chain management that measures and evaluate day to day business operations from four perspective i.e. finance, customer, internal business process and learning and growth.

The authors developed the scorecard using an extensive literature review of SCM performance measures supported by three case studies of small and medium enterprises in India. The balanced scorecard developed in this paper provides a useful guidance for the practical managers in evaluation and measuring of SCM in a balanced way and proposes a balanced performance measurement system to map and analyze supply chains. While suggesting balanced scorecard, different SCM performance metrics have been reviewed and distributed into four perspectives. This helps managers to evaluate SCM performance in a much-balanced way from all angles of business.

The value of the balanced SCM scorecard rises if it is used to evaluate SCM performance
on daily routine basis to coordinate wide range of business operations simultaneously. The management of companies are likely to benefit at all decision levels from a systematic framework based on goals and measures that are agreed upon in advance.


360 Feedback

Peng, A. C., & Zeng, W. (2017). Workplace ostracism and deviant and helping behaviors: The moderating role of 360 degree feedback

Journal of Organizational Behavior, 38(6), 833-855

Additional articles on 360 feedback by Dr. Chaudron are available here.

This paper deals with ostracism which is generally defined as the experience of being deliberately denied social contact from others from which one might expect such contact. Research has shown that being ostracized by others is one of the most emotionally hurtful thing a human can experience. This paper reports on ostracism at work place and the moderating role of 360 degree feedback.

The authors argue using survey data collected from employees of two studies ( North America and China) that when 360 degree feedback is used in a work setting, being ostracized by coworkers has a stronger negative influence on employees' state self-esteem, which promotes interpersonal deviance and demotivates helping directed toward coworkers, as compared to settings in which 360 feedback is not used.

Both studies data supported the hypothesized interaction between work place ostracism and 360 degree feedback on interpersonal deviance and helping behavior. The results also demonstrated that lower state self-esteem accounts for the stronger negative association of ostracism with helping behavior among employees exposed to 360 degree feedback. The study concludes with providing implications of the results.


Training

Kay, M. J., Kay, S. A., & Tuininga, A. R. (2018). Green teams: A collaborative training model

Journal of Cleaner Production

Additional articles on training by Dr. Chaudron are available here.

Green team is a group of young people who have just started working after their education and are assigned a task to green the business. Such groups of people are enthusiastic and ask probing questions to learn the trade. This paper describes a pilot green team summer internship program to engage, train, and empower college students to collaborate with businesses.

This paper describes a pilot multidisciplinary student/business internship program and uses the program outcomes and survey data to discern benefits and refine a collaborative approach to improve sustainability. The authors collected data using surveys, observations of the administrators and the assessments of the managers. Substantive evidence for effective team building was indicated by high scores among student team participants on measures of team cohesion, viability, satisfaction, and performance. The collaborative training was effective in boosting and broadening engagement among business employees.

The study concludes with implication of the collaborative training model and its effect on the business processes.


Employee Surveys

Cheng, L., Cheng, H., & Zhuang, Z. (2018). Political connections, corporate innovation and entrepreneurship: Evidence from the China Employer-Employee Survey (CEES).

China Economic Review

For additional articles on employee surveys by Dr. Chaudron, click here.

This paper discusses the concept of political connections, corporate innovation and entrepreneurship using survey data. Political connections are a widespread phenomenon in both developed and developing countries while innovation has been a key determinant in success of many sectors. There is a lot of literature available on both political connections and innovations with several studies showing that political connections contribute towards the firm's innovative behaviors. This paper attempts to reconcile the mixed effects of political connections on corporate innovation.

The studies shows using the data of China Employer-Employee Survey (CEES) that political connections contribute to innovative activities for firms with innovative entrepreneurs but impedes innovative activities for firms without innovative entrepreneurs. The authors also argue that political connections can help firms obtain benefits economically such as tax preference and government subsidies which are utilized by firms to increase fixed asset investment. But such positive effect of political connections on fixed asset investment greatly reduces when the firm's entrepreneur has a strong spirit of innovation. These results provide a reasonable explanation for the change in the direction of the effect of political connections on corporate innovation. The results from this study can be used for countries similar to China.


Teams/Facilitation

Szymanski, C., Pesquita, A., Brennan, A. A., Perdikis, D., Enns, J. T., Brick, T. R., Lindenberger, U. (2017). Teams on the same wavelength perform better: Inter-brain phase synchronization constitutes a neural substrate for social facilitation.

Neuroimage, 152, 425-436.

Additional articles on teams by Dr. Chaudron are here.

Teamwork is a prominent features of today's working culture in diverse fields such as science, healthcare or business. Research in the domain of economics and organizational psychology has tried to capture the characteristics of good teamwork, to measure teamwork quality and the benefits of a better team compositions.

In this study, the authors conducted a visual searching task test with participants alone or with a partner while measuring each participants EEG working with the hypothesis that working together feels easier with some people than with others. Some participants search the visual display more efficiently when working as a team while some did not benefit from working in a team, These inter-team differences in behavioral performance gain in the visual search task were reliably associated with inter-team differences in local and inter-brain phase synchronization. The study concludes with discussion, implications and limitations of the study.


Six Sigma

Erdil, N. O., Aktas, C. B., & Arani, O. M. (2018). Embedding sustainability in lean six sigma efforts.

Journal of Cleaner Production, 198, 520-529.

Additional articles on TQM/Six Sigma by Dr. Chaudron are available here.

Sustainability is often defined as a balance between the environmental, economic and social needs to the present as well as the future generations. There continues to be efforts to integrate this concept of sustainability into many aspects of the businesses and operations either due to increasing public interest, regulatory pressures or corporate social responsibility. This paper reports on how to integrate sustainability within businesses.

Lean and Six sigma (LSS) principles in sustainability studies has become popular in research as well as in practice. This study aims to develop a model framework to fully embed sustainability into any LSS project building on current practices. The wide coverage of LSS, its effectiveness record, and its overlap with sustainability goals establish the foundation for expanding LSS methodology to include sustainability concepts. The proposed framework is not specific to an industry, but is intended to be applicable to the wide spectrum of projects where LSS can be applied. The study collected data from manufacturing and construction industries to create a framework to ingrate sustainability into any type of improvement initiative.

The study concludes with practical application of the framework for both academics and professionals as the presented framework provides a different perspective than what is found in literature enabling broader applications, together with concrete steps and examples demonstrating its implementation, use, and potential benefits.