A thank you to all of those we met in Abu Dhabi. We are providing this Journal to you as our way of thanks.

Signposts and Indicators our monthly summary of important political, economic, social and technological changes that affect organizations will benefit your long-term decision-making is available.
In this issue: Avoiding scrutiny of your donors by setting up a non-profit; Japan's attempt to heal itself; Social tensions in China, and discoveries in immunology.

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David Chaudron, PhD
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Organized Change
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Strategic Planning

Land Use - Transportation Scenarios and Future Vehicle Travel and Land Consumption

Bartholomew, K. & Ewing R. (2009). Journal of the American Planning Association, 75(1), 13-27.

This article analyzes several scenario planning studies to identify the extent to which compact growth scenarios can be predicted as a means of reducing vehicular travel and land consumption. Bartholomew and Ewing (2009) hypothesized that the use of alternative scenarios over extended period of time significantly reduces the land consumption and automobile use. The researchers reviewed 85 scenarios, identified 23 planning studies from 18 metropolitan areas, and developed a regional vehicle-miles-traveled (VMT) model. Overall, the results revealed that there was a reduction in land consumption and vehicular travel when scenario planning in the development of land use-transportation was used. The researchers predicted that compact growth scenarios will reduce VMT by 2050.

To read the full summary, click here.

Additional articles on strategic planning by Dr. Chaudron are available here.


Balanced Scorecard

Managing Performance at Local Government Level: The Case of the City of Brisbane and the City of Melbourne

Yetano, A. (2009). The Australian Journal of Public Administration 68(2), 167-181.

Using the Balanced Scorecard as a framework, Yetano (2009) analyzed ways local governments conducted performance management systems. The researcher examined the government's objectives when implementing the structure as a way of coping with demands for improved performance, accountability, and customer care. Yetano investigated two case studies, the City of Brisbane and the City of Melbourne. These cases were selected based on successfully implemented performance management system, similar administrative culture, and similar level of government. Final analysis showed that both case studies were influenced by administrative culture of promoting performance measurement and management, had comprehensive vision statements, designed specific departments for performance management, and used outcome indicators for monitoring and planning. Additional studies analyzing the difference between administrative cultures and initiative (successful and failed) would be beneficial.

To read the full summary, click here.

Additional articles by Dr. Chaudron on the Balanced Scorecard are available here.


360 Feedback

What's Fair? Public and Private Delivery of Project Feedback

Westerman,C. Y. K., & Westerman, D. K. (2013). Journal of Business Communication, 50(2), 190-207.

Delivering feedback to employees may seem to be an easy task. Is it? Westerman and Westerman (2013) examined the perception of procedural and interactional justice when a positive or a negative feedback was delivered either privately or publicly. They hypothesized that positive and private messages will lead to more procedural and more interactional justice than do negative messages. Their findings show that managers who choose private delivery are viewed as more procedurally and interactionally just than those managers who choose public delivery. It also points out that positive feedback is viewed as more procedurally and interactionally than negative feedback.

To read the full summary, click here.

Additional articles on 360 feedback by Dr. Chaudron are available here.


Training

Organizational Commitment and Turnover Intentions: Impact of employee's Training in Private Sector of Saudi Arabia

Jehanzeb, K., Rasheed, A., & Rasheed, M. F. (2013). International Journal of Business and Management 8(8), 79-90.

This study examined the extent to which the perception of availability of training influenced organizational commitment and turnover intentions. Jehanzeb, Rasheed and Rasheed's (2013) findings revealed a positive relationship between availability of training and organizational commitment as well as manager support for training and organizational commitment. The results also supported hypothesized negative relationship between organizational commitment and employee turnover intentions. Interestingly, motivation to learn and organizational commitment did not produce significant difference in this research. Researchers suggested that employees might be motivated to learn but they did not use their new learned skills. Therefore, such a relationship was absent.

To read the full summary, click here.

Additional articles on training by Dr. Chaudron are available here.


Employee Surveys

The Study of the Antecedents and Outcomes of Attitude toward Organizational Change

Chih, W. H., Yang, F. H., & Chang, C. K. (2012). Public Personnel Management, 41(4), 597-617.

This research sought to find out whether or not job satisfaction and organizational commitment influence attitude toward organizational change and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). Chih, Yang, and Chang (2012) found that job satisfaction positively influenced organizational commitment, attitude toward organizational change, and OCB. They also identified a significant positive relationship between organizational commitment and attitudes toward organizational change and between attitude toward organizational change and OCB. The researchers did not find enough evidence to support the significant relationship between attitude toward organizational commitment and OCB.

To read the longer summary, click here.

For additional articles on employee surveys by Dr. Chaudron, click here.


Teams/Facilitation

Field Testing a Behavioral Teamwork Assessment Tool with U.S. Undergraduate Business Students

Hobson, C. J., Strupeck, D., Griffin, A., Szostek, J., Selladurai, R, & Rominer, A. S. (2013). Business Education & Accreditation, 5(2), 17-27.

This article addresses the behavioral assessment of teamwork skills among undergraduate business students. Hobson et al. (2013) suggest that higher levels of teamwork skills are much needed among college students who will join diverse group settings in the business industry. Two hundred forty seven undergraduate students enrolled in a Teamwork course were grouped into six teams each of which participated in a Leaders-less Group Discussion (LGD) lasting 20 minutes. The results revealed that among the positive behaviors that received the highest scores on the five point scale were "listening attentively," "answered teammate questions," and "offered task-related input during team discussion." Items that received the lowest scores included the following, "attempted to achieve win-win resolutions to conflict," "expressed empathy for teammate feelings," and "politely asked for input from a quiet teammate." There were insignificant scores given to 10 negative team behaviors suggesting team participation was successful.

To read a longer summary, click here.

Additional articles on teams by Dr. Chaudron are here.


Six Sigma

Six Sigma Tools in Integrating Internal Operations of a Retail Pharmacy: A Case Study

Kumar, S., & Kwong, A. M. (2011). Technology and Health Care, 19, 115-133.

Six Sigma tools are considered effective when either improving or creating a sustainable competitive advantage in the marketplace. Using the Six Sigma tools such as Service Blueprinting, Cause-Effect diagram, Gap Analysis, and mistake-proofing (poka-yoka), Kumar and Kwong (2011) examined the pharmacy process flow to identify the sources of prescription error. Some of the several identified improvement needs consisted of creating checklists for the pharmacy technician and the pharmacist, perfecting customer satisfaction and employee engagement, and developing a "demographic check list" to be completed at the drop-off time.

To read a longer summary, click here.

Additional articles on TQM/Six Sigma by Dr. Chaudron are available here.