A thank you to all of those we met in Abu Dhabi. We are providing this Journal to you as our way of thanks.

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Signposts and Indicators our monthly summary of important political, economic, social and technological changes that affect organizations will benefit your long-term decision-making is available.
In this issue: the contagious consequences of the war in Syria; the erectus in all of us; the Irish recovery begins; and coming soon to a medical center near you, a cyclotron.

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David Chaudron, PhD
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Organized Change
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Strategic Planning

Strategic planning and the fiscal Performance of city governments during the great recession.

American Review of Public Administration, 43(5), 581-601. doi:10.1177/0275074012451051

Can cities that implement comprehensive strategic planning adjust better to the current fiscal crisis and minimize their budget deficits? Managers from cities with comprehensive strategic planning are more confident of their fiscal outlook than those who do not have a strategic plan. A positive outlook may help local governments' adjust to financial crises. Periods of loss revenue are often associated with the decline of organizational optimism, disorganization, and decision paralysis. Improving organizational confidence is crucial as it creates a sense of control and capacity to act.

To read the full summary, click here.

Additional articles on strategic planning by Dr. Chaudron are available here.

Balanced Scorecard

When is a balanced scorecard a balanced scorecard?

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 60(7), 688-708. doi:10.1108/17410401111167780

The Balanced Scorecard (BSC) is commonly used as a performance measurement and strategy implementation tool by organizations. Research has revealed that the term "balanced scorecard" may be misunderstood by managers meaning the performance measurement systems may not represent the construct envisioned. Using Kaplan and Norton's Balanced Scorecard construct as a basis, the paper aimed to develop and test five-level taxonomy to classify firms' performance measurement systems. It was found that 74.5 percent organizations' performance measurement systems met the criteria to be classified as a Basic Level 1 BSC, while 40.9 percent of organizations have structurally complete Level 3 BSCs, and 24.2 percent of organizations have fully developed Level 5 BSCs.

To read the full summary, click here.

Additional articles by Dr. Chaudron on the Balanced Scorecard are available here.

360 Feedback

Assessing leadership derailment factors in 360° feedback: Differences across position levels and self-other agreement.

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 34(4), 326-343. doi:10.1108/LODJ-07-2011-0070

Leadership derailment can cost large companies considerable sums. The article examined the relationship between 360 assessment of leadership derailment factors and leadership effectiveness, differences across position levels, and impact of self-other agreement. Significant negative correlations were found between leadership derailment factors and leadership effectiveness. Looking more closely why such correlations were found we see that higher-level managers were rated higher on derailment factors than lower-level managers. In addition high ratings of derailment factors (i.e. rated high by both self and others) were associated with lower effectiveness than low ratings (i.e. rated low by both self and others). The self-under-ratings of derailment factors (i.e. self-ratings lower than others' ratings) were related to lower effectiveness than self-over-ratings (i.e. self-ratings higher than others' ratings). It also was found that self-ratings were less accurate than ratings from other rater sources.

To read the full summary, click here.

Additional articles on 360 feedback by Dr. Chaudron are available here.


The strategic micro-firm: a role play in management training for dynamic businesses.

Journal of Workplace Learning, 25(5), 328-342. doi:10.1108/JWL-May-2012-0041

The article describes the main characteristics of the role-playing game "Strategic Micro-Firm" which aims to replicate the central features of a complex supply chain. The Micro-F game reproduces most of the situations that normally characterize the daily operations of a company. In addition Strategic Micro-Firm is complementary of other traditional tools and educational approaches to management training, while it has a very specific focus on the ability to transfer a useful operating knowledge in an enduring manner.

To read the full summary, click here.

Additional articles on training by Dr. Chaudron are available here.

Employee Surveys

Identified Employee Surveys: Potential Promise, Perils, and Professional Practice Guidelines.

Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 4(4), 435-448. doi:10.1111/j.1754-9434.2011.01369.x

When are identified surveys uniquely beneficial? When talking about identified surveys, we are focusing on individual-level behavior, attitudes, or decisions, which is the method preferred by human resources professionals to collect and maintain employee data. Moreover, these types of analyses can provide evidence to support human resources decisions and recommendations. When then do identified surveys impact employee perceptions and response behavior? Studies from a number of fields have found that when survey participants perceive less anonymity, their survey ratings become more positive, more socially desirable, less honest, and/or of lower quality.

To read the longer summary, click here.

For additional articles on employee surveys by Dr. Chaudron, click here.


Organizational citizenship behavior in work groups: A team cultural perspective.

Journal of Organizational Behavior, 1056(October 2012), 1039-1056. doi:10.1002/job

Studies have often found positive relationships between Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCB) and performance rating; but very few studies have scrutinized the team contexts in which such relationships exist. To understand how culture moderates Organizational Citizen Behaviors influence on job performance ratings, the article looked at the moderator of culture- collective vs. individualistic teams. Culture does moderate OCBs-performance rating relationship such that OCBs targeting individuals improved rated performance in highly collectivistic teams, whereas OCBs produced a significant improvement in highly individualistic teams.

To read a longer summary, click here.

Additional articles on teams by Dr. Chaudron are here.

Six Sigma

Barriers and challenges in the application of Six Sigma in the hospitality industry: Some observations and findings.

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 62(3), 317-322. doi:10.1108/17410401311309203

Six Sigma has some fundamental barriers and challenges. They include data collection, defining projects, and getting group consensus. Issues of time management, resistance, and other factors that can be considered as being specific to the hotel and are need to be addressed by management. Resistance to change can be overcome by convincing employees of the real benefits that lie in the process. This can be accomplished by involving them in the process.

To read a longer summary, click here.

Additional articles on TQM/Six Sigma by Dr. Chaudron are available here.