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Strategic Planning

Poister, T. H. (2010). The future of strategic planning in the public sector: Linking strategic management and performance.

Public Administration Review, 70, s246-s254

Additional articles on strategic planning by Dr. Chaudron are available here.

In this article, the author looks at the future of strategic planning in the public sector as they link strategic management and performance. According to the author, strategic planning will need to play a more critical role in 2020 than it does at present if public managers are to anticipate and manage change adroitly and effectively address new issues that are likely to emerge with increasing rapidity. Strategic planning is concerned with formulating a strategy. In his seminal book on strategic planning in the public and nonprofit sectors, Bryson presents strategic planning as a set of concepts, processes, and tools for shaping "what an organization (or other entity) is, what it does, and why it does.

Strategic planning processes need to facilitate understanding of the forces driving issues, explore options in terms of their feasibility and likely consequences, and stimulate candid discussions regarding the costs and risks associated with various alternatives. The author argues that need to effectuate three fundamental changes in the way in which we manage public agencies over the next decade:

  • Shifting from strategic planning to strategic management
  • Moving from performance measurement to performance management
  • Linking strategy and performance management more effectively

Making these three transitions will be essential to enable public agencies to focus attention on the most appropriate goals and to manage effectively to achieve those goals. While many leading-edge public organizations do have effective strategic management processes in place, many more agencies at all levels of government fail to utilize the kinds of practices discussed in this article to develop and implement strategy and to manage performance effectively.


Balanced Scorecard

De Geuser, F., Mooraj, S., &Oyon, D. (2009). Does the balanced scorecard add value? Empirical evidence on its effect on performance.

European Accounting Review, 18(1), 93-122.

Additional articles by Dr. Chaudron on the Balanced Scorecard are available here.

In this article, the authors use empirical evidence on its effect on performance as related to the balanced scorecard. Their aim was to see whether the balanced scorecard adds value. Numerous companies have adopted the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) since its emergence at the beginning of the 1990s. It appears that managers are convinced to use the BSC because it was created by trusted (ethos) academics and practitioners using a rhetoric that appealed essentially to managers' emotions (pathos) and only little to their rationality (logos).

The BSC is likely to affect performance through a variety of means. Kaplan and Norton propose The Strategy-Focused Organisation framework to explain how the BSC contributes to a firm's performance. The framework distinguishes five possible sources of performance:

  • The top management support is given to the BSC implementation
  • The use of the BSC to translate strategy
  • The use of the BSC to align the organization
  • The implication of everyone in the design and implementation of the BSC
  • The introduction of a continuous process of strategy formation through the BSC



The authors conclude that while the BSC continues to be adopted by a large number of firms, our study demonstrates that the BSC contributes positively to organizational performance. Surprisingly, the top management support and the participation of all employees do not appear to be prerequisite conditions to make a BSC development successful.


360 Feedback

Hensel, R., Meijers, F., van der Leeden, R., &Kessels, J. (2010). 360-degree feedback: how many raters are needed for reliable ratings on the capacity to develop competencies, with personal qualities as developmental goals?

The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21(15), 2813-2830.

Additional articles by Dr. Chaudron on the Balanced Scorecard are available here.

This article seeks to determine the number of raters needed for a reliable rating on the capacity to develop competences with personal qualities as development goals when using 360-degree feedback. 360-degree feedback is a widely used technique in the area of Strategic HRM/ HRD. The reliability of 360-degree feedback on the capacity to develop personal qualities has been investigated. The use of unreliable ratings on performance, abilities and developmental capacities can cause serious problems. The malfunctioning of ratings assessing employee abilities caused major distrust and moral problems in organizations, leading to effectiveness problems.

Validity and reliability problems seem to play an important part when studying problems concerning single and multi-source ratings. In this study, only the reliability of 360-degree feedback on the effectuation of the development of competences is investigated. The development of competences should be an elementary part of an S-HRD policy as it should deliver essential employee qualities to the organization to be effective. Personal qualities, especially those measured by the Five-Factor model of personality, are related to a broad range of aspects of the organizational effectiveness.

As feedback is important for the effectiveness of an S-HRD policy the application of a systematic single item 360 degree feedback measurement could deliver valuable information enhancing feedback mechanisms.


Training

Khan, R. A. G., Khan, F. A., & Khan, M. A. (2011). Impact of training and development on organizational performance.

Global Journal of Management and Business Research, 11(7).

Additional articles by Dr. Chaudron on the Balance Scorecard are available here.

In this research paper, the authors look at the impact of training and development on the performance of an organization. Training has the distinct role in the achievement of an organizational goal by incorporating the interests of the organization and the workforce. Nowadays training is the most important factor in the business world because training increases the efficiency and the effectiveness of both employees and the organization. The employee performance depends on various factors. But the most important factor in employee performance is training. Training is important to enhance the capabilities of employees.

Training and development increases employee performance is an important activity to increase the performance of health sector organization. Employee performance is the important factor and the building block which increases the performance of the overall organization. Employee performance depends on many factors like job satisfaction, knowledge and management but there is a relationship between training and performance. People learn from their practical experience much better as compare to bookish knowledge. On the job training reduces cost and saves time.

They conclude that training and development have a significant effect on the organizational performance. And it has a positive effect on the organizational performance. It improves the organizational performance. As we see in the table that most of the means are in between the bracket of 4-5, it means that most of our respondents think that Training and Development have a significant effect on the organizational performance.


Employee Surveys

Rollins, T. (1994). Turning employee survey results into high-impact business improvements.

Employment Relations Today (Wiley), 21(1), 35-44.

For additional articles on employee surveys by Dr. Chaudron, click here.

This article looks at how to turn the employee survey results into high impact business improvement. Employee surveys are tools used by organizational leadership to gain feedback on and measure employee engagement, employee morale, and performance. Employee opinion surveys are an often misunderstood, misused, and underutilized intervention within the U.S. business community. Employees, shareholders, and customers all require careful attention for a company to reach its highest potential.

The author argues that the optimal employee opinion survey follow-up strategy for any company must reflect the objectives and results of the survey, historical management practices, other change programs already in place, and a variety of other factors. There are a number of key principles that permeate the entire survey follow-up process in organizations that are successful at translating surveys into organizational improvement. The major principles are as follows:

  • Plan carefully
  • Accept ownership of the survey process
  • Distinguish companywide division and department issues
  • Prioritize issues
  • Involve management and employees in developing solutions
  • Make managers accountable
  • Educate managers
  • Adopt an inside/outside approach
  • Communicate continuously to employees

The author concludes that because the company moved swiftly to take vigorous corrective action, both company financial results and employee morale moved higher. By vigorously pursuing the problem areas uncovered by the survey, the company was able to right its course. Data from two surveys and increased net profits for the period yielded convincing evidence of a company surging ahead with new confidence and employee support.


Teams/Facilitation

Lessard, S., Bareil, C., Lalonde, L., Duhamel, F., Hudon, E., Goudreau, J., & Lévesque, L. (2015). External facilitators and interprofessional facilitation teams: a qualitative study of their roles in supporting practice change.

Implementation Science, 11(1), 97.

Additional articles on teams by Dr. Chaudron are here.

Organizations can use team facilitation to manage and support change as it is a powerful approach. This paper aims at understanding the facilitation roles exercised by both external facilitators and interprofessional facilitation teams to foster the implementation of change. The authors describes facilitation as an approach used by appointed individuals, which teams can also foster, to build capacity and support practice change.It also helps decision makers become aware of the multiple roles and dynamics involved and the key competencies needed to recruit facilitators and members of interprofessional facilitation teams.


Six Sigma

Kwak, Y. H., &Anbari, F. T. (2006). Benefits, obstacles, and future of six sigma approach.

Technovation, 26(5-6), 708-715.

Additional articles by Dr. Chaudron on Six Sigma are here.

This article looks at the benefits, obstacles, and future of the six sigma approach. Six Sigma is a disciplined, data-driven approach and methodology for eliminating defects (driving toward six standard deviations between the mean and the nearest specification limit) in any process - from manufacturing to transactional and from product to service. Therefore, six sigma methods is a project-driven management approach to improve the organization's products, services, and processes by continually reducing defects in the organization.

The widespread applications of six sigma were possible due to the fact that organizations were able to articulate the benefits of six sigma presented in financial returns by linking process improvement with cost savings. Obstacles and challenges of six sigma methods include issues in strategy, issues in organizational culture, and issues in training (Belt Program). Six Sigma is likely to remain as one of the key initiatives to improve the management process than just being remembered as one of the fads. The primary focus should be on improving overall management performance, not just pinpointing and counting defects.

The authors conclude that successful implementation and growing organizational interest in six sigma method have been exploding in the last few years. It is rapidly becoming a major driving force for many technology-driven, project-driven organizations. Understanding the key features, obstacles, and shortcomings of six sigma provide opportunities to practitioners for better implement six sigma projects.