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Strategic Planning

Scenario Planning Strategic Planinng Change Management

Soulard, J., Knollenberg, W., Boley, B. B., Perdue, R. R., & McGehee, N. G. (2018). Social capital and destination strategic planning.

Tourism Management, 69, 189-200

Additional articles on strategic planning by Dr. Chaudron are available here.

Destination management organizations (DMOs) are increasingly embracing strategic planning as a tool to enhance destination competitiveness. However, a critical gap still remains in understanding the social and governmental factors influencing stakeholder adoption or rejection of this practice. Improving stakeholder engagement is a critical challenge for destination strategic planning.

This study applies a theoretical underpinning on this subject and used social capital as a theoretical lens to explore the social dynamics which facilitate or inhibit successful tourism destination planning. The study gathered data using in-depth interviews of 74 stakeholders who recently worked directly in completing five destination plans. The interviews explored the dimensions of trust, reciprocity and cooperation in the contexts of bonding and bridging social capital.
The results suggest that stakeholder's support for destination strategic planning increases as bonding and bridging social capital intensifies. The study concludes with providing recommendations for both destination strategic planning as well as how to implement strategic plans.

Balanced Scorecard

Hansen, E. G., & Schaltegger, S. (2016). The Sustainability Balanced Scorecard: A Systematic Review of Architectures.

Journal of Business Ethics, 133(2), 193-221

Additional articles by Dr. Chaudron on the Balanced Scorecard are available here.

The shortcomings of insufficiently comprehensive approaches to the measurement and management of corporate success have led to increased economic risks and problems for companies, the economy and society. There has been an increased emphasis on strategic importance of environmental, social and ethical issues as well as related performance measures has spurred interest in corporate sustainability performance measurement and management systems. This paper focuses on the balanced scorecard, which is a performance measurement and management system which aims at balancing short and long-term measures as well as balancing financial and non-financial measures.

In this study, the authors conducted a thematic analysis based on a systematic literature review carried out on the balanced scored card to synthesize the widely scattered research findings and publications on this subject. After the systematic review procedure, 69 relevant articles spanning over a period of two decades were included in the analysis.
The study findings report that sustainability-oriented modifications of the balanced scored card architecture are motivated by instrumental, social/political or normative theoretical perspectives. The findings in this study contributes to development of the emerging sustainable balanced score card (SBSC) literature and generally to research on corporate sustainability performance measurement and measurement. The study concludes with recommendations and implications for management.

360 Feedback

Bracken, D. W., Rose, D. S., & Church, A. H. (2016). The evolution and devolution of 360° feedback.

Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 9(4), 761-794.

Additional articles by Dr. Chaudron on the Balanced Scorecard are available here.

360 feedback has been around for a long time and has increasingly become embedded in many human resources processes applied at individual, group and organizational levels. The practice of 360° feedback has been around so long and the profession has become so comfortable with it that now there is confusion on what is 360 feedback and what is not.

The authors focus on the evolution and devolution of 360 feedback in the past 25+ years and the changes it has gone through. Some of these changes have been positive in advancing research, theory and practice while others less so. The study aims to bring new structure, dimension and some degree of closure to key open issues in this important and enduring area of practice.

The authors present a new definition of 360 feedback, summarize its history, discuss significant research and practice trends. The authors also offer suggestions for researchers, practitioners and end users in organization who use this tool moving forward.


Büke, B., Araz, Ö. M., & Fowler, J. W. (2016). Cross-Training with Imperfect Training Schemes.

Production and Operations Management, 25(7)

Additional articles by Dr. Chaudron on the Balanced Scorecard are available here.

Designing flexible systems is one of the fundamental strategy to increases responsiveness to demand variability in market without sacrificing efficiency of a system. One of the ways systems can achieve flexibility is to cross-train workers on several processes. Cross-training has been proven to be highly effective in many different business environments especially in manufacturing and service systems. It is generally argued that cross-trained employees are not as productive on a specific task as employees who were originally trained for that task and the productivity of the cross-trained workers depend on when they are cross-trained. This study reflects on a two-stage model to analyze the effects of variations in productivity levels on cross-training policies.

The study defines a new metric called achievable capacity and report that it plays a major role in determining the structure of the problem. The study reports that when cross-training is done in a consistent manner, the achievable capacity is not affected by when the training is done, which implies that the cross-training decisions are based on a trade-off between cross-training costs at different times and are independent of the opportunity cost of lost demand.
The study further analyze the effects of variability and show that if the productivity levels of workers trained at different times are consistent, the decision maker is inclined to defer the cross-training decisions as the variability of demand or productivity levels increases. However, when the productivities of workers trained at different times differ, an increase in the variability may make investing more in cross-training earlier more preferable.

Employee Surveys

Pritchard, K. (2014). Using employee surveys to attract and retain the best talent.

Strategic HR Review, 13(2),59-62.

For additional articles on employee surveys by Dr. Chaudron, click here.

The biggest challenge the HR professionals around the world face is engaging the staff and attracting the best talent. Having a strong employer brand makes it easier to attract staff. However, many employers are not aware of how they are perceived externally. Job seekers will often consider companies as an employer based on experience or knowledge as a customer. This paper aims to demonstrate the importance of organizations understanding how they are perceived externally and how regularly tracking the opinion of staff can ensure that their best talent stays with the organization long term.
This study is based on a global HR survey "HR Reflections" and two case studies that demonstrate how regular tracking and deep analysis of staff opinions can help organizations to boost their employer brand and retain their best talent. The paper provides practical suggestions on engaging the new joiners in a company as well as tracking opinions over a period of time and to effectively use employee surveys.


Walter, F., & Van Der Vegt, G. S. Harnessing positive mood for team learning facilitation: the role of perceived team feedback.

Annual meeting proceedings (Academy of Management), 8(1), 1-6.

Additional articles on teams by Dr. Chaudron are here.

Organizations can use team facilitation to manage and support change as it is a powerful approach. This paper aims at understanding the facilitation roles exercised by both external facilitators and interprofessional facilitation teams to foster the implementation of change. The authors describes facilitation as an approach used by appointed individuals, which teams can also foster, to build capacity and support practice change.It also helps decision makers become aware of the multiple roles and dynamics involved and the key competencies needed to recruit facilitators and members of interprofessional facilitation teams.

Six Sigma

Aldowaisan, T., Nourelfath, M., & Hassan, J. (2015). Six Sigma performance for non-normal processes.

European Journal of Operational Research, 247(3), 968-977.

Additional articles by Dr. Chaudron on Six Sigma are here.
In this paper, the authors show that when a process is exponential, attaining high performances main require a larger reduction in variation i.e. greater quality-improvement effort. In addition, identifying whether the process data are of non-normal distribution is important to more accurately estimate the effort which will be required to improve the process. The study reports that for a low kσ level, the amount of variation reduction required to improve an exponentially distributed process is less than that of a normally distributed one. For a higher kσ level, the reverse scenario is the case.
The study concludes with the suggestion that the classical and widely used assumption of a normally distributed process may lead to implementation of quality-improvement strategies or the selection of Six Sigma projects that are based on erroneous solutions.