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Strategic Planning

Scenario Planning Strategic Planinng Change Management

Allyson L. Brady, Shannon E. Kobs Nawotniak, Scott S. Hughes, Samuel J. Payler, Adam H. Stevens, Charles S. Cockell, Richard C. Elphic,4 Alexander Sehlke, Christopher W. Haberle, Greg F. Slater, & Darlene S.S. Lim, (2019)

Strategic Planning Insights for Future Science-Driven Extravehicular Activity on Mars

Astrobiology, 19, 347-368

Additional articles by Dr. Chaudron on strategic planning are available here.

Strategic planning, defined in this article as the generation of mid-term and long-term science plans used to direct extravehicular activity (EVAs) conducted over a mission or multiple missions (Eppler et al., 2013), is an essential aspect of crewed science-driven space exploration. This research describe the strategic planning process used during the Biologic Analog Science Associated with Lava Terrains (BASALT) program to conduct non-simulated scientific research into basalt habitability under Mars-simulated conditions that address this knowledge gap.

The BASALT simulations highlighted that relevant and high-quality (i.e., high resolution) precurs or imagery tailored to specific scientific objectives is necessary to effectively strategically plan EVAs. The inability to achieve primary scientific objectives during an EVA due to insufficient precursor information during the planning stages was problematic and brings to light challenges that may be faced in planning future planetary missions. Future planetary missions need to prioritize capturing and creating data products that enable selection of targets and planning of EVA traverse paths that have a high probability of meeting the set scientific objectives of not only the individual EVAs but also the entire deployment.

Balanced Scorecard

Huseyin Arasli, Cihan Alphun and Hasan Evrim Arici,(2019). Can balanced scorecard adoption mediate the impacts of environmental uncertainty on hotel performance? The moderating role of organizational decision-making structure.

Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management

Additional articles by Dr. Chaudron on the Balanced Scorecard are available here.

In this article they take balanced scorecard as a performance measurement (PM) which has been one of the most important strategic PM systems used to improve organizational performance (Sainaghi, Phillips, & Zavarrone, 2017). The previous studies did not give any detailed information regarding which of the BSC's component(s) significantly impact on hotel performance (HP). This study thus contributes to readers understanding of each dimension's role in BSC adoption on the relationship between perceived environmental uncertainty (PEU) and HP.

In this study, the researchers could not find a relationship between PEU and the innovation and learning dimension of the BSC. Additionally, study's empirical analysis about the mediating effect of the four dimensions of the BSC showed that, while financial, customer, and internal business processes dimensions played a significant mediating role in the relationship between PEU and HP, the innovation and learning dimension did not.

Another important outcome of this study is the positive and significant association between the extent of BSC dimensions' adoption by hotel managers and decentralized structure to produce a positive influence on HP. Finally, this study confirmed the relationships between PEU, BSC dimensions' adoption, and HP by testing the moderating effect of decentralization. The results of the study showed that PEU did not have an impact on the innovation and learning dimension of the BSC. Also results suggest that, when a hotel's external environment is not stable, managers should pay greater attention to providing efficient operational process, as well as training and development opportunities for their employees, which subsequently influence performance outcomes under a decentralized hotel structure.

360 Feedback

Alberto Corbl, Iratxe Lejarreta Errasti & Daniel Burgos, (2019). A Scalable Approach for 360? Feedback in Cooperative Learning.

AEEE Access, 7, 2169-3536

Additional articles by Dr. Chaudron on 360 feedback are available here.

360-degree feedback has been developed to have information on evaluation supplied by various members within an organisation, but they can also be used for job performance appraisal purpose. This study presents an example of this being used to evaluate differences in the perception of male and female leadership using 360-degree feedback.

The study collected data of male and female managers from their immediate bosses and peers.

The study uses hierarchical regression to test the hypothesis that males and females differ in terms of their job performance. The results from the study provide evidence that male peers rate female managers' job performance significantly lower than that of male managers while female peers do not discriminate in their evaluations. The study provides the limitations of the current research and practical implication of using this result for understanding their organisation's culture.


Enik� Zala-Mez�, Sabine Raeder & Nina-Cathrin Strauss, (2019). More knowledge helps implement change: Evaluation of a training program during educational reform

Studies in Educational Evaluation, 61, 105-111

Additional articles by Dr. Chaudron on the Balance Scorecard are available here.

In this study, a training program used during a large-scale reform resulting from the implementation of a new school law was evaluated. The evaluation was theoretically founded on the research of training transfer assuming that new knowledge and skills must be transferred to the work context to ensure the effectiveness of the training. An evaluation was conducted after each training course. In total, 3154 course participants and facilitators from 179 courses provided data. The results indicated that the school-specific learning condition contributes to a positive course evaluation and thus results in higher topic-related knowledge. The use of the training transfer framework within the context of educational change increases our understanding of the design of supporting activities during reform processes, especially since supporting activities are often conceived as training courses.

The training program first aspires to better understand negative attitudes and then build up a positive learning climate. Apart from the variables measured in this study, it would be important to observe real classroom behavior as a follow-up to attendance at a training course. The study design did not allow researchers to draw causal conclusions from the study results. While the results indicated that the topic-related knowledge is correlated with the assessment of the course and with change-related self-efficacy, a causal direction cannot be inferred because the data were collected at one point in time (Antonakis, Bendahan, Jacquart, & Lalive, 2010). This study highlighted the relevance of knowledge and attitudes toward the impending changes. The findings suggest that future training programs should consider previous attitudes of participants as well as the school-specific learning conditions within schools.

Employee Surveys

Luu, T. T., Rowley, C., & Vo, T. T. (2019). Addressing employee diversity to foster their work engagement.

Journal of Business Research, 95, 303-315

For additional articles on employee surveys by Dr. Chaudron, click here.

Labor conflict has become a serious problem in recent China from the perspective of entrepreneur innovation. This paper aims to find an effective path to eliminate this conflict on the basis of theoretical and regression analyses. This paper finds that, with legal environment and other conditions identical, entrepreneur innovation will significantly facilitate elimination of labor conflicts. Also entrepreneur innovations have significant impacts on eliminating labor conflicts. Results find that when entrepreneur innovative spirits and capacity are stronger, the average of workers' job satisfaction is significantly higher.

This paper finds that there exist heterogeneous effects of entrepreneur innovation on labor conflicts we also find that the effects of entrepreneur innovation in eliminating labor conflicts are weaker for export firms. The study finds that the effects of entrepreneur innovation are more concentrated in private firms, firms with stronger market power and non-exporters. In this study they use a mediating effect model and finds that workers' participation in corporation governance is an important channel in which entrepreneur innovation can have impacts on labor conflicts.


Isabella Seeber,. (2019). How do facilitation interventions foster learning? The role of evaluation and coordination as causal mediators in idea convergence.

Computers in Human Behavior, 94, 176-189.

Additional articles on teams by Dr. Chaudron are here.

In this study, researcher tested three facilitation techniques and the mediating role of evaluation and coordination in a laboratory experiment involving 199 participants. The participants were given an ITsupported convergence task with crowdsourced ideas. The findings show that facilitated teams receiving high attention guidance and discussion encouragement outperform non-facilitated teams and that evaluation and coordination are the mechanisms through which these effects come about. The findings of this study also have implications for designers of conversational agents for teams. The facilitation technique Treasure Hunt showed that teams can improve their evaluation and coordination processes for better co-creation of meaning and eventually shared understanding. The underlying work shows that non-facilitated teams performed the worst. Hence, team leaders should facilitate their teams when they converge on crowdsourced ideas.

This research provides a first step towards opening the black box of mechanisms by which facilitators affect team learning behaviors when converging on crowdsourced ideas. This study showed that not all facilitation interventions can foster better team processes and outcomes. More importantly, this study could show that the processes evaluation and coordination were the mechanisms through which the facilitation interventions, characterized with high attention guidance, resulted in improved co-construction of meaning. The findings are beneficial for the design of conversational agents in convergence settings and for team leaders who want to establish shared understanding in convergence settings with crowdsourced ideas. Whether team processes and outcomes differ between facilitated and non-facilitated teams depends on the facilitation intervention technique applied.

Six Sigma

Alessandro Laureani., & Jiju Antony., (2019). Leadership and Lean Six Sigma: a systematic literature review

Journal: Total Quality Management, 30, 53-81.

Additional articles by Dr. Chaudron on Six Sigma are here.

The concept of 'Lean Six Sigma' as an integrated strategy is still in development: since its inception in 2000, a number of academics have developed an integrated approach, while others have focused on a framework for the successful integration of Lean and Six Sigma. The focus of this research was to consolidate the existing knowledge on leadership and Lean Six Sigma, providing a starting point for researchers and practitioners seeking to implement Lean Six Sigma in organisations and offering suggestions for future research. Leadership is a critical factor for Lean Six Sigma success and there is the need to develop a new model of leadership that encompasses the leadership traits needed for Lean Six Sigma. This article pointing out how Lean Six Sigma is an effective leadership development tool: 'leaders enable an organization to move from one paradigm to another; from one way of working to another way of working. Lean Six Sigma provides the concepts, methods and tools for changing processes'.

The focus of this research is to consolidate the existing knowledge on leadership and Lean Six Sigma, providing a starting point for researchers and practitioners seeking to implement Lean Six Sigma in organisations and offering suggestions for future research. The research is based on a systematic literature review of 179 papers that were published on leadership, Lean and Six Sigma in well-known academic databases in the past 20 years. The key findings of the review show that (1) leadership is a requirement for successful Lean Six Sigma deployment in organisations, and critical to sustaining improvement and (2) Lean Six Sigma is an effective leadership development tool. Since 2000 several new leadership styles have also been proposed (Anderson & Sun, 2015), but they have not been yet properly defined. There is a need to develop a new model of leadership that encompasses the leadership traits needed for Lean Six Sigma.